The Last Temptation of Christ is a 1988 American-Canadian epic drama film directed by Martin Scorsese. Written by Paul Schrader with uncredited rewrites from Scorsese and Jay Cocks, the film is a film adaptation of Nikos Kazantzakis' controversial 1953 novel of the same name. The film, starring Willem Dafoe, Harvey Keitel, Barbara Hershey, Harry Dean Stanton, and David Bowie, was shot entirely in Morocco. Like the novel, the film depicts the life of Jesus Christ and his struggle with various forms of temptation including fear, doubt, depression, reluctance and lust. This results in the book and film depicting Christ being tempted by imagining himself engaged in sexual activities, a notion that has caused outrage from some Christians. The film includes a disclaimer explaining that it departs from the commonly accepted Biblical portrayal of Jesus' life, and is not based on the Gospels.